Physico-Chemical Properties of Biodiesel from Jatropha and Castor Oils

Aldo Apita Okullo, A. K. Temu, P. Ogwok, J. W. Ntalikwa

Abstract


Biodiesel is becoming prominent among the alternatives to conventional petro-diesel due to economic, environmental and social factors. The quality of biodiesel is influenced by the nature of feedstock and the production processes employed. High amounts of free fatty acids (FFA) in the feedstock are known to be detrimental to the quality of biodiesel. In addition, oils with compounds containing hydroxyl groups possess high viscosity due to hydrogen bonding. American Standards and Testing Materials, (ASTM D 6751) recommends FFA content of not more than 0.5% in biodiesel and a viscosity of less than 6 mm2/s. The physico-chemical properties of jatropha and castor oils were assessed for their potential in biodiesel. The properties of jatropha and castor oils were compared with those of palm from literature while that of biodiesel were compared with petro-diesel, ASTM and European Standards (EN14214). Results showed that high amounts of FFA in oils produced low quality biodiesel while neutralized oils with low amounts of FFA produced high quality biodiesel. The quality of biodiesel from jatropha and castor oils was improved greatly by neutralising the crude oils.


Keywords


Feedstock; Biodiesel; Physco-chemical Properties; Transesterification

Full Text:

PDF

References


Canoira Laureano, Galean Juan Garcia, Alacantara Ramon, Lapuerta Magin and Garcia Contereras Reyes, “Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMES) from Castor oil: Production Process Assessment and Synergistic effects in its properties”. Renewable Energy, pp. 1-10, 2009.

Pramanik K, “Properties and use of jatropha curcas oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine”. Renewable Energy, vol. 28, pp. 239-248, 2003.

Knothe Gerhard and Steidley R., Kevin. “Kinematic Viscosity of Biodiesel Fuel components and related compounds. Influence of compound structure and comparison to petro-diesel fuel Components”. Fuel, vol. 84, pp. 1059-1065, 2005.

Murugesan A., Umarani C., Chinnusamy T., R., Krishanan R., Subramancan R., and Neluzchezhain, N., “Production and Analysis of Biodiesel from non-edible oils”. A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 13, pp. 825-834, 2009.

Knothe Gerhard, “Dependence of Biodiesel Fuel Properties on the Structure of Fatty Acid Alkyl Ester”. Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 86, pp.1059-1070, 2005.

Gemma Vicente, Mercedes Martinez and Jose Arcil, Integrated Biodiesel Production: A comparison of different homogeneous catalysts systems. Bioresource Technology, vol. 92, pp. 297-305, 2004.

Hirata Shizuko and Berchmans Hanny Johanes, “Biodiesel Production from crude Jatropha Curcas L. seed oil with high content of free fatty acids”. Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, pp. 1716-1721, 2007.

Canakci M., and Gerpen J., Van. “Biodiesel Production from Oils and Fats with High Free Fatty Acids. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, vol. 44, No. 6, pp.1429-1436, 2001.

Demirbas Ayhan, “Biodiesel Production via non-catalytic SCF method and biodiesel fuel characteristics”. Energy Conservation and Management, vol. 47, pp. 2271-2282 2006.

ASTM Standard D 6751-03, Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel (B100) Blend Stock for Distillate fuels. ASTM International, May 2003.

Gerpen J., Von, Shanks B., and Pruszko R. Biodiesel Analytical Methods. Subcontractor report, August 2002- January 2004, contract no. DE-AC36-99-GO10337. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, July 2004.

Gerpen Jon Van, “Biodiesel processing and production”, Fuel processing Technology, vol. 86, pp. 1097-1107, 2005.

Gupta M., N., Shweta Shah and Shweta Sharma, “Biodiesel Preparation by Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Jatropha Oil”. Energy and Fuels, vol. 18, pp. 154-159, 2004.

Gerpen Jon H. Van, Peterson Charles L., Goering Carroll E. “Biodiesel: An Alternative Fuel for Comparison Ignition Engines”. Agricultural Equipment Technology Conference, Louisville, Kentucky, pp. 1-22, 11-14 February 2007.

Knothe Gerhard, “Analysing Biodiesel: Standards and other methods”. JAOCS, vol. 83, pp. 823-833, 2006.

Ma Fangrui and Hanna Milford A. “Biodiesel Production: a review”. Bioresource Technology, vol. 70, pp. 1-15, 1999.

Demirbas Ayan, “Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods”, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol.31, pp.466-487, 2005.

Aguirrezabal Luis A., N., Quiroz Facundo, Nolasco Susana M., Covi Maurio, Izquierdo Natalia G., and Pereyra-Irujo Gustavo A., “Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A Simulation study”. Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 33, pp. 459-468, 2009.

Aracil Jose, Gemma Vicente, Mercedes Martinez, and Alfredo Esteban. “Kinetics of Sunflower Oil methanolysis”. Ind. Eng. Chem Res., vol. 44, pp 5447-5454, 2005.

Moser Bryan R., “Biodiesel Production, Properties and Feedstock”. In Vitro Cell Division Biology - Plant, vol. 45, pp. 229-266, 2009.

Achten W.M.J., Verchot L., Franken Y. J., Mathijis E., Singh V. P., Aerts R., and Muys B. “Jatropha biodiesel production and use”. Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 32, pp. 1063-1084, 2008.

Forson F. K., Oduro E. K., and Hammond-Donkoh E., “Performance of Jatropha oil blends in a diesel engine”. Renewable Energy, vol. 29, pp. 1135-1145, 2004.

King Andrew J., Cuevas Jesus A., Freudenberger Mark, Ramiaramanana Daniele and Graham Ian A. “Potential of Jatropha curcas as a source of renewable oil and animal feed”. Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 2897-2905, 2009.

Openshaw Keith, “A review of Jatropha curcas: an oil plant of unfulfilled promise”. Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 19, pp. 1-15, 2000.

Ogunniyi D.S. “Castor oil: A vital industrial raw material”. Bioresource Technology, vol. 97, pp. 1086-1091, 2006.

Cvengros Jan, Paligova Jarmila, and Cvengrosova Zuzana. “Properties of alkyl esters baso on castor oil”. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology, vol. 108, pp. 629-635, 2006.

Meneghetti Simoni M., Plentz, Mario R., Meneghetti, Carlos R., Wolf, Eid C., Silva, Gilvan E., S., Lima, Laelson de Lira Silva, Tatiana M., Serra, Fernanda Cauduro and Lenise G., de Oliveira, “Biodiesel from Castor Oil: A Comparison of Ethanolysis versus Methanolysis”. Energy and Fuels, vol. 20, pp. 2262-2265, 2006.

Abolle Abolle, Loukou Kouakou, Henri Planche, “The viscosity of diesel oil and mixtures with straight vegetable oils: Palm, cabbage palm, cotton, groundnut, copra and sunflower”. Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 33, pp. 1116-1121, 2009.

Rider B., Keith , Akers M., Stephen, Conkle L., Jeremy and Thomas N., Stephanie, “Determination of Heat of Combustion of Biodiesel using Bomb Calorimetry. A multidisciplinary Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment”. Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 260-262, 2006.

Knothe Gerhard, Gerpen Jon Van and Krahl Jurgen, The biodiesel handbook, Champaign, Illinois: AOCS Press, 2005 Chs. 3 and 6.

Choo Yuen May, Yung Chee Liang, Cheng Sit Foon, Ma Ah Nagan, Chuah Cheng Hook and Yusof Basiron, “Short Communication: Key fuel properties of palm oil alkyl esters”. Fuel, vol. 84, pp. 1717-1720, 2005.

Jawad Nagi, Syed Khaleel Ahmedand Farruk Nagi, “Palm Biodiesel an Alternative Green Renewable Energy for the Energy Demands of the Future”, International Conference on Construction and Building Technology, ICCBT 2008-F-(07) , pp. 79-94. 2008.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 1309-0127

www.ijrer.org

icolak@ijrer.org

IJRER is cited in SCOPUS