Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage System in a Micro Grid Using the Mixed Integer Linear Programming

Navid Ghaffarzadeh, Morteza Zolfaghari, Fatemeh Jahanbani Ardakani, Ali Jahanbani Ardakani


Battery, as an energy storage system, plays an important role in operation of micro-grids (MG). This paper presents a new analytical cost-based approach to optimal sizing of battery energy storage systems (BESS) to reduce the operational and total costs of MGs. To do so, a unit commitment problem must be solved to obtain the optimal schedule of units, and then the proposed sizing approach will be applied. The objective function of this problem consists of different operational costs such as energy production, operational and maintenance, startup and shutdown, emission, fuel costs, maintenance of spinning reserve and battery, which is one of the advantages of this paper. Furthermore, this paper studies a perfect set of operational constraints including, generating power limits, loaddemand balance, minimum up-time, minimum down-time, ramp rate capabilities, spinning reserve requirement and BESS operational constraints; that is the other advantage of the proposed method. Although, in this study, most of equations and constraints of the problem are non-linear, we shall try to model them linear. Therefore, the problem is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solved by CPLEX solver in General Algebraic Model System (GAMS) software. Because, in the problem, there is a large number of parameters, feasibility of them in GAMS is difficult. another advantage of this study is feasibling the problem by using the actual data. Finally, to show the impact of the optimal size of BESS on the operational costs of MG, three different scenarios will be considered and compared with each other. Output results  compared by the other solvers such as MOSEK, LINDO confirmed the obtained results.

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Optimal sizing; energy storage system; micro grid; unit commitment; operation cost

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