A Review on Optimal Inclination Angles for Solar Arrays

Dhanesh Jain, Mahendra Lalwani

Abstract


The knowledge of solar radiation falling on horizontal surface is the fundamental requirement for installing and monitoring the solar technologies. Due to variable nature of sun radiation, the power production of solar photovoltaic is fluctuating as compare to conventional power plant that’s why the cost of power is increase. During the many decades, in order to estimate the horizontal components of solar radiation on hourly, daily and monthly mean basis have been estimated by different empirical models. There is one possible solution to improve the power production cost by changing the tilt angle and orientation angle on the basis of different factors such as time, season and location. To capture the maximum solar radiation inclination angle play an important role.

The purpose of this study is to provide a review of different diffuse models proposed in past and provides the optimal tilt angle for different locations around the world on the basis of monthly, seasonally, bi-annually and  yearly.  This review would be beneficial for the further research in solar energy in term of, to identify the optimal tilt angle and collection of radiation for different location in the globe. Additionally, to get the proper accuracy and reliability of orientation angle and tilt angle to get the strong correlation with solar radiation for different time periods such as monthly, seasonally, half yearly and yearly at desired location.


Total Views: 180

Keywords


Solar Energy; Tilt angle; Solar radiation; Inclination angle; Solar Photovoltaic

Full Text:

5833

References


J. Duffie and W. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 3rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 2006.

Y. Ma, G. Li, and R. Tang, “Optical performance of vertical axis three azimuth angles tracked solar panels”, Applied Energy, vol. 88, pp. 1784-1791, 2011.

W.D. Lubitz, “Effect of manual tilt adjustments on incident irradiance on fixed and tracking solar panels”, Applied Energy, vol. 88, pp. 1710-1719, 2011.

B. Khan, Non-Conventional Energy Resources, Second Edition, McGraw Hill Edu. Pvt. Ltd., India, 2014.

D.K. Singh, N.K. Swarnkar and M. Lalwani, “A Review on Growth & Future Plans of Solar Power Generation in India”, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science, vol. 2, pp. 7-10, 2015.

B.Y.H. Liu and R.C. Jordan, "Daily insolation on surfaces tilt-ed towards the equator", Trans. ASHRAE, pp. 526-541, 1962.

Y.Q. Tian, R.J. Davies-Colley, P. Gong and B.W. Thorrold, “Estimating solar radiation on slopes of arbitrary aspect”, Agri. and Forest Meteorology, vol. 109, pp. 67-77, 2001.

V. Badescu, “A new kind of cloudy sky model to compute instantaneous values of diffuse and global irradiance”, Theore- tical and Applied Climatology, vol. 72, pp. 127-136, 2002.

P.S. Koronakis, “On the choice of the angle of tilt for south facing solar collectors in the Athens basin area”, Solar Energy, vol.36, pp. 217-225, 1986.

J.I. Jimenez and Y. Castro, National assembly of Geophysics and geodesy, Vol. II, pp. 805, 1986.

C.C.Y. Ma and M. Iqbal, “Statistical comparison of models for estimating solar radiation on inclined surfaces", Solar Energy, vol. 31(3), pp. 313-317, 1983.

J.W. Bugler, “The determination of hourly insolation on an inclined plane using a diffuse irradiance model based on hourly measured global horizontal insolation”, Solar Energy, vol. 19(6), pp. 477-491, 1977.

M.D. Steven and M.H. Unsworth, “The angular distribution and interception of diffuse solar radiation below over cast skies”, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 106, pp. 57-61, 1980.

T.M. Klucher, “Evaluation of models to predict insolation on tilted surfaces”, Solar Energy, vol. 23(2), pp. 111-114, 1979.

R. Perez, P. Ineichen, R. Seals, J. Michalsky and R. Stewart, “Modeling daylight availability and irradiance components from direct and global irradiance”, Solar Energy, vol. 44(5), pp. 271-289, 1990.

T. Muneer, “Solar radiation model for Europe”, Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, vol. 11(4), pp. 153- 163, 1990.

J.E. Hay, “Calculation of monthly mean solar radiation for horizontal and inclined surface”, Solar energy, vol. 23, pp. 301-330, 1979.

D.T. Reindl, W.A. Beckman and J.A. Duffie “Evaluation of hourly tilted surface radiation models”, Solar Energy, vol. 45(1), pp. 9-17, 1990.

R. Tang and T. Wu, “Optimal tilt-angles for solar collectors used in China”, Applied Energy, vol. 79, pp. 239-248, 2004.

T.P. Chang, “The Sun’s apparent position and the optimal tilt angle of a solar collector in the northern hemisphere”, Solar Energy, vol. 83, pp. 1274-1284, 2009.

C.B. Christensen and G.M. Barker, “Effects of tilt and azimuth on annual incident solar radiation for United States locations,” Proceedings of Solar Forum, Washington, DC, 2001.

J. Kaldellis, K. Kavadias and D. Zafirakis, “Experimental validation of the optimum photovoltaic panels’ tilt angle for remote consumers”, Rene. Energy, vol. 46, pp. 179-191, 2012.

M. Lalwani, D.P. Kothari and M. Singh, “Size optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic system under local weather conditions in India”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 1, pp. 951-961, 2011.

A.G. Siraki and P. Pillay, “Study of optimum tilt angles for solar panels in different latitudes for urban applications,” Solar Energy, vol. 86, pp. 1920-1928, 2012.

M. Despotovic and V. Nedic, “Comparison of optimum tilt angles of solar collectors determined at yearly, seasonal and monthly levels”, Energy Conversion Management, vol. 97, pp. 121-131, 2015.

M. Bojic, D. Bigot, F. Miranville, A. Parvedy-patou and J. Radulovi, “Optimizing performances of photovoltaics in Reunion Island-tilt angle”, Progress in Photovoltaic Research and Applications, vol. 20(8), pp. 923-935, 2011.

W.G. Le Roux, “Optimum tilt and azimuth angles for fixed solar collectors in South Africa using measured data”, Renewable Energy, vol. 96, pp. 603-612, 2016.

C.L. Cheng, C.S.S. Jimenez and M. Lee, “Research of BIPV optimal tilted angle, use of latitude concept for south orientated plans”, Renewable Energy, vol. 34, pp. 1644-1650, 2009.

H. Moghadam and S.M. Deymeh, “Determination of optimum location and tilt angle of solar collector on the roof of buildings with regard to shadow of adjacent neighbors”, Sustainable Cities and Society, vol.14, pp. 215-222, 2014.

M. Hartner, A. Ortner, A. Hiesl and R. Haas, “East to west–The optimal tilt angle and orientation of photovoltaic panels from an electricity system perspective,” Applied Energy, vol. 160, pp. 94-107, 2015.

P. Corrada, J. Bell, L. Guan and N. Motta, “Optimizing solar collector tilt angle to improve energy harvesting in a solar cooling system”, Energy Procedia, International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings and Industry Freiburg, Germany, vol. 48, pp. 806-812, 2013.

R. Tang, W. Gao, Y. Yu and H. Chen, “Optimal tilt-angles of all-glass evacuated tube solar collectors”, Energy, vol. 34, pp. 1387-1395, 2009.

P. Sunderan, A.S. Ismil. B. Singh and N.M. Mohamed, “Optimum tilt angle and orientation of Standalone Photovoltaic Electricity Generation System and rural Electrification”, J. of Appl. Sci., vol. 11, pp. 1219-1224, 2011.

S. Beringer, H. Schilke, I. Lohse and G. Seckmeyer, “Case study showing that the tilt angle of photovoltaic plants is nearly irrelevant”, Solar Energy, vol. 85, pp. 470-476, 2011.

E.D. Mehleri, P.L. Zervas, H. Sarimveis, J.A. Palyvos and N.C. Markatos, “Determination of the optimal tilt angle and orientation for solar photovoltaic arrays”, Renewable Energy, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 2468-2475, 2010.

Y. Chang, “An ant direction hybrid differential evolution algorithm in determining the tilt angle for photovoltaic modules”, Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 37, pp. 5415-5422, 2010.

Y. Chang, “Optimal design of discrete-value tilt angle of PV using sequential neural-network approximation and orthogonal array”, Expert Syst. with Appl., vol. 36, pp. 6010-6018, 2009.

Y. Chang, “Optimal the tilt angles for photovoltaic modules using PSO method with nonlinear time-varying evolution”, Energy, vol. 35, pp. 1954-1963, 2010.

M. Lalwani, D.P. Kothari and M. Singh, “Investigation of Solar Photovoltaic Simulation Softwares”, Inter. Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 1, pp. 585-601, 2010.

S. Beringer, H. Schilke, I. Lohse and G. Seckmeyer, “Case study showing that the tilt angle of photovoltaic plants is nearly irrelevant”, Solar Energy, vol. 85, pp. 470-476, 2011.

E.A. Handoyo, D. Ichsani and Prabowo, “The optimal tilt angle of a solar collector”, Energy Procedia, vol. 32, pp. 166-175, 2013.

H. Yang and L. Lu, “Orientations of PV Claddings for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Application”, Journal of Solar Engineering, vol. 129, pp. 253-255, 2007.

H.S.S. Pour, H.K. Beheshti and M. Rahnama, “The Gain of the Energy under the Optimum Angles of Solar Panels during a Year in Isfahan, Iran”, Energy Sources, Part A : Recovery, Utilization and Environ. Effects, vol. 33, pp. 1281-1290, 2011.

H. Ennaceri and K. Loudiyi, “Modeling the Variation of Optimum Tilt Angles for Flat-Plate Solar Collectors in Ifrane, Morocco”, International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference, pp. 106-111, 2013.

C. Stanciu and D. Stanciu, “Optimum tilt angle for flat plate collectors all over the World–A declination dependence formula and comparisons of three solar radiation models”, Energy Conversion and Manage., vol. 81, pp. 133-143, 2014.

S.F. Khahro, K. Tabbassum, S. Talpur, M. Bux Alvi, X. Liao and L. Dong, “Evaluation of solar energy resources by establishing empirical models for diffuse solar radiation on tilted surface and analysis for optimum tilt angle for a prospective location in southern region of Sindh, Pakistan”, Elect. Power and Energy Syst., vol. 64, pp. 1073-1080, 2015.

T.O. Kaddoura, M.A.M. Ramli and Y.A. Al-turki, “On the estimation of the optimum tilt angle of PV panel in Saudi Arabia”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 65, pp. 626-634, 2016.

F. Jafarkazemi and S.A. Saadabadi, “Optimum tilt angle and orientation of solar surfaces in Abu Dhabi, UAE”, Renewable Energy, vol. 56, pp. 44-49, 2013.

H. Gunerhan and A. Hepbasli, “Determination of the optimum tilt angle of solar collectors for building applications”, Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 779-783, 2007.

K. Ulgen, “Optimum Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors”, Energy Sources, Part A : Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, vol. 1171-1180, pp. 37-41, 2007.

H. Moghadam, F. F. Tabrizi and A. Z. Sharak, “Optimization of solar flat collector inclination”, Desalination, vol. 265, pp. 107-111, 2011.

M.A.B.H.M. Yakup and A.Q. Malik, “Optimum tilt angle and orientation for solar collector in Brunei Darussalam”, Renewable Energy, vol. 24, pp. 223-234, 2001.

S.A. Keshavarz, P. Talebizadeh, S. Adalatia, M.A. Mehrabian and M. Abdolzadeh, “Optimal Slope-Angles to Determine Maximum Solar Energy Gain for Solar Collectors Used in Iran”, International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 665-673, 2012.

M. Kacira, M. Simsek, Y. Babur and S. Demirkol “Determining optimum tilt angles and orientations of photovoltaic panels in Sanliurfa, Turkey”, Renewable Energy, vol. 29, pp. 1265-1275, 2004.

I.H. Rowlands, B.P. Kemery and I.B. Morrison, “Optimal solar-PV tilt angle and azimuth: An Ontario (Canada) case-study”, Energy Policy, vol. 39, pp. 1397-1409, 2011.

J. Kaldellis and D. Zafirakis, “Experimental investigation of the optimum photovoltaic panels’ tilt angle during the summer period”, Energy, vol. 38, pp. 305-314, 2012.

E. Calabrò, “Determining optimum tilt angles of photovoltaic panels at typical north-tropical latitudes”, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, vol. 33104, pp.1-6, 2009.

H.H. Sherwali, H. Abufares, H. Ashour and S. Sangiorgio, “Investigation of Optimum Monthly Tilt Angles for Photovoltaic Panels in Tripoli through Solar Radiation Measurement”, IEEE 15th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering, pp. 565-569, 2015.

F. Li, N. Ma, J. Zhao, K. Qu, X. Yang and Z. Chen, “Evaluating optimum tilt angle for PV modules using solar radiation models in Wuhan, China”, 9th International Conference on Power Electronics-ECCE Asia, Seoul, Korea, pp. 2507-2512, 2015.

D. Lahjouji and H. Darhmaoui, “Tilt Angle Optimization for Maximum Solar Energy Collection-Case Study for Ifrane, Morocco”, International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC), pp. 90-100, 2013.

M. Nizam, M. Anwar, A.A. Salema, M.M. Baieka and H.M.S. Atia, “Optimization of Surface Orientation Angles to Receive Maximum Solar Radiation at Sabha City, Libya”, Joint International Conference on Electric Vehicular Technology and Industrial, Mechanical, Electrical and Chemical Engineering, pp. 206-211, 2015.

M. Benghanem, “Optimization of tilt angle for solar panel : Case study for Madinah, Saudi Arabia”, Applied Energy, vol. 88, pp. 1427-1433, 2011.

N. Shu, N. Kameda, Y. Kishida and H. Sonoda, “Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Optimal Tilt Angle of Photovoltaic Panels”, Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 399-405, 2006.

A. Balouktsis, D. Tsanakas and G. Vachtsevanos, “On the Optimum Tilt Angle of a Photovoltaic Array”, International Journal of Solar Energy, vol. 5, pp. 153-169, 1987.

S. Soulayman and M. Hammoud, “Optimum tilt angle of solar collectors for building applications in mid-latitude zone”, Energy Conversion and Manage, vol. 124, pp. 20-28, 2016.

K. Bakirci, “General models for optimum tilt angles of solar panels : Turkey case study”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, pp. 6149-6159, 2012.

Y.B. Gebremedhen, “Determination of Optimum Fixed and Adjustable Tilt Angles for Solar Collectors by using Typical Meteorological Year data for Turkey”, International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 4, pp. 924-928, 2014.

P. Talebizadeh, M.A. Mehrabian and M. Abdolzadeh, “Determination of Optimum Slope Angles of Solar Collectors Based on New Correlations”, Energy Sources, Part A: Recov, Util. and Envir. Effects, vol. 33, pp. 1567-1580, 2011.

N. Ramli and S. Walker, “Pan-Global, Annualized Determination of Solar Collector Optimum Tilt Angle”, 7th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control (ICMIC 2015) Sousse, Tunisia, pp. 1-4, 2015.

S.R.K. Madeti and Z. Ahmad, “Development of a MATLAB/LabVIEW model for optimal tilt angle and maximum power generation of a PV module”, International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks, pp. 1493-1498, 2015.

B. Jamil, A.T. Siddiqui, and N. Akhtar, “Estimation of solar radiation and optimum tilt angles for south-facing surfaces in Humid Subtropical Climatic Region of India”, Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, vol. 19, pp. 1826-1835, 2016.

M.J. Ahmad and G.N. Tiwari, “Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collector to Receive Maximum Radiation”, The open Renewable Energy Journal, vol. 2, pp. 19-24, 2009.

A. Agarwal, V.K. Vashishtha and S.N. Mishra, “Solar Tilt Measurement of Array for Building Application and Error Analysis”, International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp.781-789, 2012.

S.B. Jeyaprabha and A.I. Selvakumar, “Optimal sizing of photovoltaic/battery/diesel based hybrid system and optimal tilting of solar array using the artificial intelligence for remote houses in India”, Energy and Build., vol. 96, pp. 40-52, 2015.

A.K. Yadav and H. Malik, “Optimization of Tilt Angle for installation of Solar Photovoltaic system for six sites in India”, International Conference on Energy Economics and Environment, pp. 1-4, 2015.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 1309-0127

www.ijrer.org

ijrereditor@gmail.com; ilhcol@gmail.com;

IJRER is cited in SCOPUS, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE (Thomson Reuters)