Solar photovoltaic farms suitability analysis: a Portuguese case-study

Mário Baptista Coelho, Pedro Cabral, Sara Rodrigues

Abstract


The threat that fossil fuels are likely to pose to global warming is making society to look for renewable energy solutions. Among these, the use of solar energy has a high potential for growth in the current international energy mix. Thus, it is important to provide information to decision-makers that deal with the installation of new production facilities. This study combines Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) techniques to assess the land suitability for the installation of solar farms in the municipality of Ourique in the South of Portugal. Several exclusionary constraints and weighting factors were used in the modelling process with the help of expert knowledge and an extensive literature review. Results show that approximately 21% of the area is classified as “highly suitable” for installing solar farms. These results are in line with the existing and planned photovoltaic (PV) projects in the region which are mostly located in “medium” or “medium to high” suitable areas. This approach can easily be adapted to include different criteria and/or different weights to deliver information to managers helping them on the decision of locating solar farms.


Total Views: 168

Keywords


Geographic Information Systems; Multi-criteria Evaluation; Solar energy; Photovoltaic potential; Site Suitability; Ourique

Full Text:

PDF

References


J. R. Janke, “Multicriteria GIS modelling of wind and solar farms in Colorado”, Renewable Energy, DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2010.03.014, Vol. 35, No. 10, pp. 2228-2234, 2010.

NREL, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Report to Congress on Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Information for the United States, Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2006.

T. Rowe, Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaic’s 2014-2018, European Photovoltaic Industry Association, 2014.

S. Camp, and G. Hora, “Aplicação da Metodologia de Avaliação Multicritério ao Estudo da Aptidão da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Alenquer à Edificação, Usos Agrícola e Florestal”, 4th Geographic Information Users Meeting (ESIG), Lisbon, 2-4 June 2004.

J. A. Carrión, A. E. Estrella, F. A. Dols, M. Z. Toro, M. Rodríguez and A. R. Ridao, “Environmental decision-support systems for evaluating the carrying capacity of land areas: Optimal site selection for grid-connected photovoltaic power plants”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2007.06.011, Vol. 12, No.9, pp. 2358–2380, December 2008.

J. C. Castella, T. N. Trung and S. Boissau, “Participatory simulation of land-use changes in the northern mountains of Vietnam: the combined use of an agent-based model, a role-playing game, and a geographic information system”, Ecology and Society, Vol. 10, No. 1, Art. 27, 2005.

Y. Charabi and A. Gastli, “PV site suitability analysis using GIS-based spatial fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation”, Renewable Energy, DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2010.10.037, Vol. 36, No. 9, pp. 2554–2561, September 2011.

J. M. Sánchez-Lozano, J. Teruel-Solano, P. L. Soto-Elvira, and M. S. García-Cascales, “Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods for the evaluation of solar farms locations: Case study in south-eastern Spain”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.03.019, Vol. 24, pp. 544–556, 2013.

J. A. LaGro, Site Analysis: Informing Context-Sensitive and Sustainable Site Planning and Design, 3rd ed. Wiley, 2013.

EC, Science for Energy, JRC Thematic Report, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 2013.

A. Gastli and Y. Charabi, “Solar electricity prospects in Oman using GIS-based solar radiation maps”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2009.08.018, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 790–797, February 2010.

T. Santos, N. Gomes, M. Brito, S. Freire, A. Fonseca and J. A. Tenedório, “Solar Potential Analysis in Lisbon Using LIDAR Data”, 31st EARSeL Symposium, Prague, 30 May-2 June 2011.

C. Ramos and J. E. Ventura, “A Energia Solar em Portugal: potencialidades e diferenciação Regional”, 2nd Congress of the Portuguese Geography, Lisbon, 1999.

R. S. Brito, Portugal: Perfil Geográfico. Lisbon: Editorial Estampa, 1994.

S. Daveau, Portugal Geográfico, 3rd ed. Edições João Sá da Costa, 2000.

APA, Map I.1 – Insolation: Environmental Digital Atlas, Scale 1/1000000 (Portugal), Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente, 1974.

M. Šúri, T. A. Huld, E. D. Dunlop and H. A. Ossenbrink, “Potential of solar electricity generation in the European Union member states and candidate countries”, Solar Energy, DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2006.12.007, Vol. 81, No. 10, pp. 1295–1305, 2007.

T. Huld, R. Müller and A. Gambardella, “A new solar radiation database for estimating PV performance in Europe and Africa”, Solar Energy, DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2012.03.006, Vol. 86, No. 6, pp. 1803–1815, 2012.

Photovoltaic Geographical Information System. Institute for Energy and Transport of Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 2015. Available from: http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/index.htm, accessed Mar 30, 2015.

MEID, Renewable, Novas Energias a Inspirar Portugal. Ministério da Economia da Inovação e do Desenvolvimento, 2010.

Resolução de Conselho de Ministros n.º 29/2010, D. R. I Série, 73 (15-04-2010), 270-271.

DGEG, Installed capacity in producing Central Electricity 1995-2013 (Portugal), 2015. Available from: http://www.dgeg.pt?cr=8583, accessed Jan 25, 2015.

P. Carvalho and J. Ribeiro, Territórios em Transformação: O Caso do Alentejo. Departamento de Prospectiva e Planeamento e Relações Internacionais – Divisão de Informação e Comunicação, 2009.

GTES, Manual de Engenharia para Sistemas Fotovoltaicos. CEPEL – CRESESB, 2014.

IPMA, Global Solar Radiation of Portugal for February 2015, Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, 2015.

INE, Anuário Estatístico da Região do Alentejo, Instituto Nacional de Estatística, 2013.

DGEG, Renewable Energy, Quick Stats, nº 120 (Portugal), 2014. Available from: http://www.dgeg.pt/?cn=6891700271487149AAAAAAAA, accessed Jan 25, 2015.

CCDRA, Uma Estratégia de Especialização Inteligente para o Alentejo. Comissão de Coordenação e Desenvolvimento Regional do Alentejo, 2014.

INE, XV Recenseamento Geral da População, Instituto Nacional de Estatística, 2011.

EGA and AJS&A, Agenda 21 Local de Ourique: Diagnóstico para a Sustentabilidade. Environmental Governance Advisors and Câmara Municipal de Ourique, 2011.

CMO, Plano Municipal de Defesa da Floresta Contra Incêndios do Concelho de Ourique (2008-2014), 2008.

EGA and AJS&A, Agenda 21 Local de Ourique: Caracterização da Área Estratégica – Energias Alternativas. Environmental Governance Advisors and Câmara Municipal de Ourique, 2011.

M. C. Branco and A. Coito, Servidões e Restrições de Utilidade Pública. Direção Geral do Território, 2011.

T. Funabashi, A GIS Approach for Estimating Optimal Sites for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic (PV) Cells in Nebraska. Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 2011.

IPMA, Global Solar Radiation of Portugal for June 2015, Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, 2015.

J. Malczewski, GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis. Wiley, 1999.

J. R. Eastman, IDRISI Selva. Clark Labs, 2012.

R. W. Saaty, “The analytic hierarchy process-what it is and how it is used”, Mathematical Modelling, DOI: 10.1016/0270-0255(87)90473-8, Vol. 9, No 3, Art. 5, pp. 161–176, 1987.

J. Malczewski, “GIS-based land-use suitability analysis: a critical overview”, Progress in Planning, DOI: 10.1016/j.progress.2003.09.002, Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 3–65, 2004.

V. N. Martins, D.S Silva and P. Cabral, “Social vulnerability assessment to seismic risk using multicriteria analysis: the case study of Vila Franca do Campo (São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal)”, Natural Hazards, DOI: 10.1007/s11069-012-0084-x, Vol. 62, pp. 385–404, 2012.

P. Gagnon, R. Margolis, J. Melius, C. Phillips and R. Elmore, Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Technical Potential in the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2016.

DGT, Carta Administrativa Oficial de Portugal, 2014. Available from: http://www.dgterritorio.pt/ficheiros/cadastro/caop/caop_download/caop_2014_0/contaadcaop201, accessed Dec 10, 2014.

NASA, Aster Global Digital Elevation Map, 2012. Available from: http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gdem.asp, accessed Feb 02, 2015.

T. Monteiro-Henriques, Landscape and Phytosociology of the Paiva River’s Hidrographical Basin. Ph.D. Dissertation, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal, 2010.

CMO, Low, médium, high and very high tension power lines of Ourique, shapefile format, 2014.

CMO, Road network of Ourique, shapefile format, 2014.

CMO, Master Plan of Municipality of Ourique, shapefile format, 2001.

ICNF, National mapping of burnt areas 2000 to 2013, 2013. Available from: http://www.icnf.pt/portal/florestas/dfci/inc/infogeo, accessed Aug 10, 2015.

ICNF, Mapping of Rede Natura 2000 in Portugal, 2012. Available from: http://www.icnf.pt/portal/naturaclas/cart/ap-rnramsar-pt, accessed Aug 10, 2015.

CCDRA, National Ecological Reserve, shapefile format, 2015. Available from: http://www.ccdra.gov.pt/ren/download.asp?Path=http://www.ccdr-a.gov.pt/Ren/download_data, accessed Feb 10, 2015.

APA, Rivers – Water Atlas, National Information System of Water Resources, 2006. Available from: http://geo.snirh.pt/AtlasAgua/#, accessed Jan 2, 2015.

IGP, Land Cover Land Use Map for Portugal (2007), level 1, shapefile format, 2010. Available from: http://www.igeo.pt/e-IGEO/egeo_downloads.htm, accessed Apr 3, 2012.

CMO, Public Reservoir Plans, shapefile format, 2010.

CMO, Quarries of Ourique, shapefile format, 2014.

CMO, Ourique Hydroagriculture, shapefile format, 2014.

DGPC, Website of Direção Geral do Património Cultural, 2015. Available from: http://www.patrimoniocultural.pt/pt/, accessed May 5, 2015.

CMO, Railroad of Ourique, shapefile format, 2006.

Decreto-Regulamentar n.º 59/1984, D. R. I Série, 187 (13-08-1984), 2497-2500.

CMO, Geodesic marks, shapefile format, 2014.

CMO, Detailed Plans in Municipality of Ourique, shapefile format, 2011.

METI and NASA, ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 – Summary of Validation Results. Minitry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan and National Aeronautic and Space Administration, 2011.

METI and NASA, ASTER GDEM 2 README. Minitry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan and National Aeronautic and Space Administration, 2011.

J. Clifton and B. Boruff, Site Options for Concentrated Solar Power Generation in the Wheatbelt, Perth, Australia, Prepared for the Wheatbelt Development Commission, 2010.

D. A. Ignizio, Suitability modeling and the location of utility-scale solar power plants in the southwestern United States. Master Thesis, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA, 2010.

K. Eldrandaly, “Developing a GIS-Based MCE Site Selection Tool in ArcGIS Using COM Technology”, The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 276-282, 2013.

K. Tisza, GIS-based suitability modeling and multi-criteria decision analysis for utility scale solar plants in four states In the southeast U.S.. Master Thesis, The Graduate School of Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA, 2014.

IEA, Technology Roadmap: Solar photovoltaic energy, OECD/International Energy Agency, 2010.

Hill, Solar Energy Site Assessment (Phase 1), Final Report Prepared for: The Tucson Water Department and Arizona Electric Power Cooperative, Inc., Tucson, 2008.

EGA and AJS&A, Agenda 21 Local de Ourique: Caracterização da Área Estratégica – Localização Geográfica. Environmental Governance Advisors and Câmara Municipal de Ourique, 2011.

R. Hott, J. Brownson and R. Santini, “GIS-based Spatial Analysis for Large-scale Solar Power and Transmission Line issues: Case Study of Wyoming, U.S.”, Solar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 2274–2279, 2012.

D. Dahle, D. Elliott, D. Heimiller, M. Mehos, R. Robichaud, M. Scwartz, B. Stafford and A. Walker, Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy Development on DOE Legacy Management Lands, Report of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2008.

E-LEE, Site of Association for promotion of e-Learning tools for Electrical Engineering, 2003. Available from: http://e-lee.ist.utl.pt/association/association.htm, accessed Oct 25, 2014.

K. Komoto, C. Breyer, E. Cunow, K. Megherbi, D. Faiman and P. V. D. Vleuten, Energy from the Desert 4: Very Large Scale PV Power - State of the Art and Into The Future, Vol. 13, International Energy Agency – Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme, 2014.

Decreto-Lei n.º 73/2009, D. R. I Série, 63 (31-03-2009), 1988-2000.

Decreto-Lei n.º 169/2001, D. R. I Série-A, 121 (25-05-2001), 3053-3059.

Decreto-Lei n.º 139/1988, D. R. I Série, 94 (22-04-1988), 1572-1573.

Decreto-Lei n.º 239/2012, D. R. I Série, 121 (02-11-2012), 6308-6346.

Decreto-Lei n.º 49/2005, D. R. I Série-A, 39 (24-02-2005), 1670-1708.

Decreto-Lei n.º 142/2008, D. R. I Série, 142 (24-07-2008), 4596-4611.

Decreto-Lei n.º 151B/2013, D. R. I Série, 211 (31-10-2013), 6328(6)-6328(31).

Aviso n.º 1534/2014, D. R. II Série, 23 (03-02-2014), 3394-3404.

Decreto-Lei n.º 107/2009, D. R. I Série, 94 (15-05-2009), 3014-3032.

Portaria n.º 522/2009, D. R. I Série, 94 (15-05-2009), 3032-3035.

Resolução de Conselho de Ministros n.º 154/2003, D. R. I Série-B, 225 (29-09-2003), 6333-6343.

Resolução de Conselho de Ministros n.º 185/2007, D. R. I Série, 246 (21-12-2007), 8992-9005.

Decreto-Lei n.º 86/2002, D. R. I Série-A, 81 (06-04-2002), 3257-3281.

Decreto de 16-06-1910, D. R. I Série, 136 (23-06-1910), 2163-2166.

Decreto n.º 29/1990, D. R. I Série, 163 (17-07-1990), 2972-2974.

Decreto n.º 24/2013, D. R. I Série, 142 (25-07-2013), 4388.

Lei n.º 2110/1961, D. R. I Série, 192 (19-08-1961), 1029-1044.

Lei n.º 34/2015, D. R. I Série, 81(27-04-2015), 2080-2098.

Decreto-Lei n.º 276/2003, D. R. I Série-A, 255 (04-11-2003), 7340-7348.

Decreto-Lei n.º 143/1982, D. R. I Série, 96 (26-04-1982), 1012-1015.

ESRI, ArcGIS Help, 2014. Available from: http://resources.arcgis.com/en/help/main/10.2/, accessed Aug 01, 2015.

M. Boxwell, Solar Electricity Handbook: A Simple, Practical Guide to Solar Energy: how to Design and Install Photovoltaic Solar Electric Systems. Greenstream Publishing, 2011.

INE, V Recenseamento Geral da Habitação. Instituto Nacional de Estatística, 2011.

CMM, Website of Câmara Municipal de Moura, 2015. Available from: http://www.cm-moura.pt/, accessed Aug 15, 2015.

EPA, Solar Decision Tree, United States Environmental Protection Agency’s and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2013.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 1309-0127

www.ijrer.org

ijrereditor@gmail.com; ilhcol@gmail.com;

IJRER is cited in SCOPUS, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE (Thomson Reuters)